PHYSICAL REVIEW E
Information storage, reflecting the capability of a dynamical system to keep predictable information during its evolution over time, is a key element of intrinsic distributed computation, useful for the description of the dynamical complexity of several physical and biological processes. Here we introduce a parametric approach which allows one to compute information storage across multiple timescales in stochastic processes displaying both short-term dynamics and long-range correlations (LRC). Our analysis is performed in the popular framework of multiscale entropy, whereby a time series is first "coarse grained" at the chosen timescale through low-pass filtering and downsampling, and then its complexity is evaluated in terms of conditional entropy. Within this framework, our approach makes use of linear fractionally integrated autoregressive (ARFI) models to derive analytical expressions for the information storage computed at multiple timescales. Specifically, we exploit state space models to provide the representation of lowpass filtered and downsampled ARFI processes, from which information storage is computed at any given timescale relating the process variance to the prediction error variance. This enhances the practical usability of multiscale information storage, as it enables a computationally reliable quantification of a complexity measure which incorporates the effects of LRC together with that of short-term dynamics. The proposed measure is first assessed in simulated ARFI processes reproducing different types of autoregressive dynamics and different degrees of LRC, studying both the theoretical values and the finite sample performance. We find that LRC alter substantially the complexity of ARFI processes even at short timescales, and that reliable estimation of complexity can be achieved at longer timescales only when LRC are properly modeled. Then, we assess multiscale information storage in physiological time series measured in humans during resting state and postural stress, revealing unprecedented responses to stress of the complexity of heart period and systolic arterial pressure variability, which are related to the different role played by LRC in the two conditions.
Year of publication: 2019